The following data is excellent, and good for the protection of our sometimes eroding coastlines in the State of Florida; however, this teem needs two offshore Islands for our purposes. Check out the story of Palm Island Dubai, and imagine a U. S. Version for the protection of the United States Citizens, i. e. Naval Island, and an Island specifically designed to be the Atlantic Hub for International Trade. Of course the DOD would be in charge of the Port of Palm Beach Navy Base; however, the Port of Palm Beach Commissioners would be in charge of Port of Palm Beach Island designed for Global Trade as the new Panama Canal comes online.
Strategic Beach Management Plan Introduction Division of Water Resource Management Florida Department of Environmental Protection June 2015 Manatee County Shore Protection Project being constructed in 2013. 2600 Blair Stone Rd., MS 3590 Tallahassee, FL 32399-3000 www.dep.state.fl.us June 2015, Page i of 32 FOREWORD The Strategic Beach Management Plan (SBMP) provides an inventory of Florida’s strategic beach management areas fronting on the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Straits of Florida and an inventory of Florida’s 66 coastal barrier tidal inlets. The Florida Legislature has declared that the Department of Environmental Protection constitutes the beach and shore preservation authority for the state and has directed the Department to develop and maintain a comprehensive long-term management plan for the restoration and maintenance of the state’s critically eroded beaches fronting the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and the Straits of Florida. The Department has developed the SBMP, incorporating by reference adopted Inlet Management Implementation Plans (IMP’s), and held public meetings for the which the SBMP has been prepared, in accordance with Sections 161.091, 161.101, and 161.161, Florida Statutes. The Department initially adopted the SBMP in October 2000, and has subsequently updated the SBMP in May 2008, to reflect current conditions and management strategies. Public meetings were held on December 9th, 10th and 11th of 2014 for the updated SBMP, dated June 2015. Comments were received from the public during the meetings and also by way of e-mails after the public meetings. The public comments were reviewed and edits were made to the SBMP by the Department that were deemed necessary. Upon adoption, a new or updated IMP prepared by the Department, shall supersede the inlet management strategies for that inlet as listed in an existing SBMP. Likewise, the strategies set forth in an existing SBMP shall supersede strategies in any previously adopted IMP to the extent that they may be in conflict. In short, the document with the latest date for the IMP strategies applies. The SBMP is based upon the supporting data referenced in the SBMP or contained within files of the Department. Each strategy contained in the SBMP is subject to continuing evaluation, and subsequent updates, as part of the Department’s environmental permitting and authorization process. The strategies identified in the SBMP shall be eligible for state financial participation subject to Department approval and appropriation from the Florida Legislature. The level of state funding shall be determined based upon the activity being conducted and applicable to Department statutes and rules. The Department may choose not to participate financially if the proposed method for implementation is not cost effective or fails to meet the intent of Chapter 161, F.S. Nothing in the SBMP precludes the evaluation of other alternative strategies which are consistent with Chapter 161, Florida Statutes. June 2015, Page ii of 32 Table of Contents Foreword…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Organization of the SBMP………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Permitting……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Monitoring Programs……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Emergency Response ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Projects…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Florida Inlets…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8 Management Overview…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11 Sand Sources……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21 Offshore Dredging vs. Truck Hauls………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Innovative Technologies……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30 References………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31 Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 1 of 32 STATE OF FLORIDA STRATEGIC BEACH MANAGEMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION Beaches are dynamic land forms at the edge of the ocean or gulf subject to both natural and maninduced erosion. Sand moves along the shore due to wind driven currents and tides, and storms can cause dramatic changes to the beach. The majority of man-induced erosion is attributed to the creation and maintenance of inlets, where the sand has historically been removed from the coastal system, and the natural drift of sand along the shore is blocked by jetties, trapped in channels, or moved into ebb and flood shoals. The development and the placement of infrastructure in close proximity to the shore has also contributed to coastal erosion by limiting the amount of sand stored in dunes and hardening the shore for protection of upland property. Even on the calmest of weather days in Florida, the sand is always moving within the littoral zone. Florida depends on its 825 miles of sandy beaches fronting the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Straits of Florida for the enjoyment of its residents and tourists. Beaches are Florida’s primary tourist attraction, generating millions of dollars for Florida’s economy. The Economics of Florida’s Beaches, Phase I – The Impact of Beach Restoration (2003) highlights the importance of beaches to Florida’s ocean economy, see also the Economics of Florida’s Beaches, Phase II – The Economics of Beach Tourism in Florida (2005). For every one dollar spent on beach nourishment in Florida, eight dollars are collected in state taxes paid by out-of-state tourists and resident users of Florida’s beaches. Nourished beaches contribute to the expanding federal, state, and local tax bases; increase sales, income, and employment opportunities from resident and visitor spending; and enhance property values by protecting the developed shorefront from storm surges and prevent loss of upland property and protect wildlife habitat. Beaches provide habitat for many species, including endangered and threatened marine turtles, birds and mammals. Additional studies on the economics of beaches are referenced below. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) has developed a multiyear repair and maintenance strategy to carry out the state responsibilities of a comprehensive, long-range, statewide program of beach erosion control; beach preservation, restoration, and nourishment; and storm and hurricane protection. The principles of this strategy are to: • Maximize the infusion of beach-quality sand into the coastal system; Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 2 of 32 • Implement those projects that contribute most significantly to addressing the state’s beach erosion problems; • Promote inlet sand bypassing to replicate the natural flow of sand interrupted by improved, modified or altered inlets and ports; • Extend the life of beach restoration projects and reduce the frequency of nourishment; • Encourage regional approaches to ensure the geographic coordination and sequencing of projects; • Reduce equipment mobilization and demobilization costs. The Strategic Beach Management Plan (SBMP) documents the specific strategies for constructive actions at critically eroded beaches and inlets consistent with these principles. Projects must have a clearly identifiable beach management benefit consistent with the SBMP to be eligible for state funding assistance. Resources and opportunities to achieve the strategic goals of the program are discussed in the context of a subregion defined by the boundaries of distinct coastal littoral processes. The SBMP also provides a summary of previous actions taken to address beach erosion within each subregion. Beach and inlet management activities and practices in the State of Florida are governed by the Dennis L. Jones Beach and Shore Preservation Act, Chapter 161, Florida Statutes that became law in 1965. Feasibility studies and reports conducted by local governments, consultants, federal and state agencies are incorporated by reference at the end of each subregion. The Critically Eroded Beaches Report, lists those segments of shoreline designated by FDEP as critically eroded, and therefore are eligible for state funding assistance for beach management activities. Project cost estimates and schedules may be found in the Beach Management Funding Assistance Program. Additional information about beach management projects by County can be found at the Local Government Funding Request link and also at the Long Range Budget Plan link. The SBMP is a dynamic management tool for use by state, local and federal government officials. It is intended to be updated periodically as specific strategies are implemented, new resources and opportunities are identified, and proposed strategies are developed by FDEP and federal or local government sponsors. The entire SBMP is available on the FDEP, Division of Water Resource Management web site with paper copies available upon request. ORGANIZATION OF THE SBMP There are 7 regions and 32 subregions that are described in the SBMP, as shown in Figure 1. There is a Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 3 of 32 brief overview of the area that describes inlets, storms and critically eroded shoreline. Each description of a project area has a title describing the geographical area, county and range (R) survey markers that define the critically eroded segment of shoreline in the beginning of each subregion. This information can also be found in the critical erosion report. For inlets or passes, the inlet name would be labeled and the R survey marker on either side of the inlet would be stated along with the county. The paragraph below describes the geographical area; the proposed or constructed projects, a project history table and the specific project boundary. At the bottom of each geographical area and project description is a separate strategy paragraph that describes how to best manage the critically eroded shoreline. The strategy paragraph includes the planned activities that the State recommends to mitigate critical erosion and also the activities that would be considered eligible for State cost sharing. There are several elements required for beach management activities to be eligible for State cost sharing: proposed work must be consistent with Chapter 161, Florida Statutes, proposed work must be within a critical erosion area designated by the State, proposed work must be consistent with the strategies listed in the State adopted SBMP and/or Inlet Management Plans (IMPs), proposed monitoring must be required by state or federal permit and the proposed work must have a FDEP approved scope of work. To be consistent with Chapter 161, bypass material must be placed on the dry beach to be considered eligible for cost sharing. State cost sharing is provided through Legislative appropriations based on proposed activities listed in the annual local government funding request (LGFR), processed through the Beach Management Funding Assistance Program. When describing project activities, the first beach project is described as a “beach restoration” project and any project constructed after the first restoration is described as a “beach nourishment” project. Bypassing projects take place at inlets or passes and take sand from one side of the inlet, or from within the inlet or its shoals and place the material along the shorelines adjacent to the inlet to mitigate the erosive effects of the inlet. At the end of each subregion, there will be a summary of each subregion strategies for beach and inlet management. This would include sponsors and funding, project coordination, environmental protection, sand sources and additional information found in the introduction and subregion maps. It should also be noted that each original or updated inlet management plan, adopted by FDEP after the adoption of the SBMP, supersedes the strategies listed in the SBMP. Likewise, the strategies set forth in the SBMP supersede strategies in any previously adopted inlet management plan to the extent that they may be in conflict. It is also important to remember when reading the SBMP that there are other Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 4 of 32 documents that may get updated or amended independently of the SBMP from time to time; such as permits, critical erosion report and inlet management plans. PERMITTING All projects proposed to implement the SBMP strategies must obtain the appropriate federal and state permits and authorizations and must comply with local comprehensive plans and ordinances. Applicants must demonstrate that the project will comply with Florida’s water quality standards and must protect threatened and endangered species as required in Biological Opinions issued by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries. Projects must also comply with the authorities of the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC), the Florida Division of Historical Resources in the Department of State, and other state agencies as incorporated in the Florida Coastal Management Program with in the Florida Coastal Office. All beach management or inlet projects must obtain a joint coastal permit (JCP) through FDEP’s Beaches, Inlets & Ports Program. Each project that obtains or is pursuing a permit can be viewed at the Permits by County link. Permitting (JCP) considerations typically include an assessment of the compatibility of sand proposed to be utilized with the existing beach; project dimensions that may adversely affect nearshore hardbottom, or allow additional lighting on the beach that could affect marine turtle nesting and hatchlings; turbidity levels at the borrow site and placement site; and seasonal windows of construction and construction management to protect marine turtles, manatees, Gulf sturgeon, and nesting and migrating shorebirds and other imperiled species. Projects in or near Aquatic Preserves and other Outstanding Florida Waters must comply with more stringent state water quality standards. The Palm Beach Island Beach Management Agreement (BMA) is a pilot project to manage the beach and permitting activities as a complete cell from Lake Worth Inlet to South Lake Worth Inlet. When constructing a beach restoration project, sovereign submerged state land is covered by sand and shortly before the project is constructed a mean high water line (MHWL) survey is conducted to establish an erosion control line (ECL). The ECL establishes and defines the boundary between upland private land and the newly constructed state owned public land or beach. Locating sovereign submerged lands is discussed further in Chapter 253, F.S. FDEP also has the Coastal Construction Control Line (CCCL) Permitting Program that establishes an area of jurisdiction in which special siting and design criteria are applied for upland construction and related activities to minimize the impact to the beach and dune system. Condominiums, hotels, homes, pools and boardwalks etc. that are planning to be constructed seaward of the CCCL must meet the requirements of this program to protect the beach and dune system. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 5 of 32 Figure 1. Statewide regions and sub-regions map. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 6 of 32 MONITORING PROGRAMS FDEP conducts regional coastal monitoring to collect and process beach profile survey data and aerial photography. Monitoring of beach and inlet management projects is incorporated into regional monitoring activities to avoid duplication. Physical and environmental monitoring programs are being conducted at ongoing and recently completed projects. FDEP cost shares in physical and environmental monitoring programs that are required by state and federal permits. FDEP has also developed technical specifications for Monitoring Standards for Beach Erosion Control Projects. Physical monitoring consists of the collection and analysis of topographic and bathymetric surveys of the beach and dune system, inlet channels and shoals, and the nearshore and offshore zones to the depth of active littoral sand transport in the area. Where sandy beaches are located, FDEP has range or reference (R) survey markers approximately every 1000 ft for the purpose of measuring beach erosion and beach accretion. The survey makers have been used since the early 1970’s to measure beach erosion and provide location points along Florida’s sandy coastline. Physical monitoring also consist of aerial photography found on Map Direct and a collection of aerials and shoreline trends systems found on the COASTS link. Physical monitoring is used to assess and manage beach erosion control projects and inlet sand bypassing projects, to track shoreline position and volumetric changes to document performance and nourishment intervals, and to validate the sediment budget for littoral sand transport through the area. Environmental monitoring consists of the collection and analysis of nesting and hatching data for marine turtles and shorebirds; density and diversity of epibiotic species on nearshore hardbottom and artificial reefs; submerged aquatic vegetation and some fish surveys. Environmental monitoring is used to assess the effects of beach erosion control projects and the success of artificial reefs required as mitigation for project impacts. EMERGENCY RESPONSE If the Governor declares a shore erosion emergency, FDEP may spend limited state funds to alleviate shore erosion. There also may be federal public assistance funds to help cover the costs of emergency response work and storm damage recovery. FDEP recommends that local sponsors develop emergency response plans for post-storm recovery and emergency beach maintenance. These plans should include a damage assessment methodology, preliminary plans and contract documents, applications for emergency permits, sources of sand and identification of a local funding sources. FDEP also recommends that communities document ongoing programs they have to monitor beach erosion and Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 7 of 32 maintain their beach and dune systems; this documentation may help determine the scope of eligible recovery work if federal public assistance is available after a disaster event. Following Hurricane Opal in 1995 and the 2004/ 2005 hurricane seasons, FDEP created Recovery Plans which focuses on projects to be constructed prior to the next hurricane season. The Legislature allocated additional funding to implement these plans. The recovery plans identified projects which would provide a reasonable level of protection to the upland along the areas impacted, and were meant to be coordinated by all levels of government in the most efficient manner possible. FDEP also creates Post Storm Reports after tropical storms or hurricanes impact the state’s shoreline, such as with Hurricane Floyd in 1999 as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. NOAA satellite image of Hurricane Floyd taken on September 14, 1999 The Florida Department of Emergency Management (FDEM) and FDEP encourages everyone in Florida to “Get A Plan” and be prepared for natural disasters and hurricane season. The Atlantic hurricane season begins June 1 and ends on November 30. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 8 of 32 PROJECTS FLORIDA INLETS There are 66 coastal barrier inlets in Florida with 21 inlets along the Atlantic coast and 45 inlets along the Gulf coast, as shown in Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, and Table 4. Inlet Management Plans (IMP) adopted by FDEP are incorporated into the SBMP by reference along with other inlet management strategies. Florida’s inlet management plan strategies are governed by Sections 161.142 F.S. and 161.143 F.S. with the intent of balancing the inlet’s sediment budget. Not all inlet management studies conducted for local governments by consultants are adopted by FDEP into the State’s IMP’s. There are currently a total of 17 inlet management plans that have been adopted by FDEP. See Figure 3 below that shows the locations of Florida’s managed inlets. Table 1. Florida Atlantic coast managed inlets. Managed Inlet County IMP Year Adopted St. Mary’s River Entrance* Nassau Yes 1998 St. Johns River Entrance* Duval No N/A St. Augustine Inlet* St. Johns Yes Updated in 2014 Ponce de Leon Inlet* Volusia Yes 1997 Port Canaveral Inlet* Brevard Yes Updated in 2014 Sebastian Inlet Brevard and Indian River Yes 2000 Ft Pierce Inlet* St. Lucie Yes 1997 St. Lucie Inlet* Martin Yes 1995 Jupiter Inlet Palm Beach Yes 1997 Lake Worth Inlet* Palm Beach Yes 1996 South Lake Worth Inlet Palm Beach Yes 1999 Boca Raton Inlet Palm Beach Yes 1997 Hillsboro Inlet Broward Yes 1997 Port Everglades Entrance* Broward Yes 1999 Bakers Haulover Inlet* Dade Yes 1997 Government Cut* Dade No N/A Table 2. Florida Atlantic coast unmanaged inlets. Unmanaged Inlet County IMP Year Adopted Nassau Sound Nassau No N/A Fort George Inlet Duval No N/A Matanzas Inlet St. Johns No N/A Norris Cut Dade No N/A Bear Cut Dade No N/A Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 9 of 32 Table 3. Florida Gulf coast managed inlets. Managed Inlet County IMP Year Adopted Pensacola Pass* Escambia No N/A East Pass* Okaloosa Yes Updated in 2013 St. Andrews Inlet* Bay No N/A Mexico Beach Inlet Bay No N/A Bob Sikes Cut* Franklin No N/A Hurricane Pass Pinellas No N/A Clearwater Pass* Pinellas No N/A Johns Pass* Pinellas No N/A Blind Pass* Pinellas No N/A Egmont Channel* Hillsborough No N/A Longboat Pass* Manatee No N/A New Pass* Sarasota No N/A Venice Inlet* Sarasota Yes 1998 Stump Pass Charlotte No N/A Boca Grande Pass* Lee No N/A Blind Pass Lee No N/A Matanzas Pass Lee No N/A Wiggins Pass Collier No N/A Clam Pass Collier No N/A Doctors Pass Collier Yes 1997 Gordon Pass* Collier No N/A Table 4. Florida Gulf coast unmanaged inlets. Unmanaged Inlet County IMP Year Adopted Eloise Inlet Bay No N/A St. Joseph Bay Entrance Gulf No N/A Indian Pass Gulf and Franklin No N/A West Pass Franklin No N/A East Pass Franklin No N/A Ochlockonee Bay Entrance Franklin No N/A Mashes Sands Cut Wakulla No N/A Pass-a-Grille* Pinellas No N/A Bunces Pass Pinellas No N/A Southwest Channel Hillsborough and Manatee No N/A Passage Key Inlet Manatee No N/A Big Sarasota Pass Sarasota No N/A Gasparilla Pass Charlotte No N/A Captiva Pass Lee No N/A Redfish Pass Lee No N/A San Carlos Bay Entrance Lee No N/A Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 10 of 32 Unmanaged Inlet County IMP Year Adopted Big Carlos Pass Lee No N/A New Pass Lee No N/A Big Hickory Pass Lee No N/A Little Marco Pass Collier No N/A Big Marco / Capri Pass Complex Collier No N/A Caxambas Pass Collier No N/A Blind Pass Collier No N/A Morgan Pass Collier No N/A 1 – Note: While certain inlets have inlet management plans adopted by the Department, others may have special inlet management strategies in the Strategic Beach Management Plan. 2 – Note: * by inlet name is a federal navigational project managed by USACE at some capacity. Figure 3. Florida’s managed inlets. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 11 of 32 MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW In June, 2015, approximately 409.9 miles of sandy beaches and 8.7 miles of inlet shoreline are designated critically eroded, a condition where previous or continuing erosion threatens private or public development and infrastructure, or significant cultural or environmental resources (Table 5). 227.4 miles are under active management and a listing of the critically eroded beaches that are under active management is provided in Table 6 with a total of 78 listed projects. Active management to mitigate the erosive impacts of many inlets to the adjacent beaches has been implemented. Active management includes beach and dune restoration, beach nourishment, and feeder beaches, or inlet sand bypassing and other actions to mitigate the erosive effects of inlets. The first beach restoration in Florida may have begun as early as 1949 and again in 1951, which is communicated in greater detail in the Clearwater Beach paragraph of the Southwest Gulf Coast Region. See Figure 4 below that shows Florida’s managed beaches. Table 5. Miles of critically eroded beaches under active management by region. REGION CRITICALLY ERODED BEACHES (Miles) CRITICALLY ERODED MANAGED BEACHES (Miles) % MANAGED Northeast Atlantic Coast 56.0 21.6 39 Central Atlantic Coast 82.7 45.3 55 Southeast Atlantic Coast 72.1 45.8 64 Florida Keys 10.2 1.5 15 Panhandle Gulf 84.3 51.9 62 Big Bend Gulf 2.3 0.2 9 Southwest Gulf 102.3 61.1 60 TOTAL 409.9 227.4 56 Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 12 of 32 Figure 4: Florida’s managed beaches Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 13 of 32 Table 6. Miles of critically eroded beaches under active management by project name, with a total of 78 listed projects. Region, Subregion and Project County Location Managed Miles Federal Authorization Northeast Atlantic Coast Region Sea Islands Subregion Nassau County Shore Protection Project Nassau R9-R33 4.4 Yes South Amelia Island Beach Nourishment Project Nassau R60-R80 3.3 No Duval County Shore Protection Project Duval V501-R80 10.1 Yes St. Johns Beaches Subregion Anastasia State Park Beach Restoration St. Johns R132-R137 0.9 No St. Johns County Shore Protection Project St. Johns R137 -R151 2.9 Yes Central Atlantic Coast Region Cape Canaveral Subregion Brevard County Shore Protection Project – North Reach Brevard R1-R53 9.4 Yes Patrick Air Force Base Beach Restoration Project Brevard R53-R75.3 4.0 Yes Brevard County Shore Protection Project – South Reach Brevard R118-R139 3.8 Yes Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 14 of 32 Region, Subregion and Project County Location Managed Miles Federal Authorization Indian River Coast Subregion Ambersand Beach Nourishment Project Indian River R1-R17 3.1 No Wabasso Beach Restoration Project – Sector Three Indian River R20-R51.3 6.1 No Indian River County Beach Restoration Project – Sector Seven Indian River R99-R108 1.7 No St. Lucie Beaches Subregion Fort Pierce Shore Protection Project St. Lucie R34-R41 2.3 No South St. Lucie Beach Restoration St. Lucie R98-R115 3.4 No Treasure Coast Subregion Martin County Shore Protection Project Martin R1-R25.6 4.2 Yes Bathtub Beach Martin R34-R36 0.2 No St. Lucie Inlet Management Plan Implementation Martin R50-R55 1.0 Yes Jupiter Island Beach Nourishment Project Martin R75-R115 6.1 No Southeast Atlantic Coast Region Northern Palm Beaches Subregion Jupiter Carlin Shore Protection Project Palm Beach R13-R19 1.1 Yes Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 15 of 32 Region, Subregion and Project County Location Managed Miles Federal Authorization Juno Beach Nourishment Project Palm Beach R26-R38 2.4 No Palm Beaches Subregion Lake Worth Inlet Management Plan Implementation Palm Beach R76-78 0.6 Yes Mid-Town Beach Nourishment Project Palm Beach R89-R102 2.8 No Phipps Ocean Park Beach Restoration Project Palm Beach R116-R126 1.4 No Ocean Ridge Beach Nourishment Project Palm Beach R152-R159 1.4 Yes Southern Palm Beaches Subregion Delray Beach Shore Projection Project Palm Beach R175.5-R188 2.7 Yes Boca Raton Shore Projection Project (North) Palm Beach R205-R212 1.5 Yes Central Boca Raton Beach Nourishment Project Palm Beach R216-R222 1.5 No South Boca Raton Beach Nourishment Project Palm Beach R223-R227.9 1.0 No Broward-Dade Beaches Subregion Hillsboro Beach Nourishment Project Broward R6-R12 1.2 No Broward County Beach Erosion Control Project-Segment II Broward R25-R53 5.4 Yes John U. Lloyd State Park Beach Restoration Project Broward R86-R94 1.6 Yes Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 16 of 32 Region, Subregion and Project County Location Managed Miles Federal Authorization Broward County Beach Erosion Control Project-Segment III Broward R101-R128 5.3 Yes Dade County Shore Protection Project, Sunny Isles Miami-Dade R7-R20 2.6 Yes Dade County Shore Protection Project, Bakers Haulover Park Miami-Dade R20-R26.7 1.6 Yes Dade County Shore Protection Project, Bal Harbor, Surfside, Miami Beach Miami-Dade R27-R74.4 9.2 Yes Southern Barriers Subregion Key Biscayne Shore Protection Project Miami-Dade R101-R113 2.5 Yes Florida Keys Region Curry Hammock State Park Beach Nourishment Project Monroe na 0.1 No Bahia Honda State Park Beach Restoration Project Monroe na 0.5 No Smathers Beach Nourishment Project Monroe na 0.6 No Fort Zachary Taylor Historical State Park Beach Nourishment Project Monroe na 0.3 No Panhandle Gulf Region Western Barriers Subregion Pensacola Beach Restoration Project Escambia R107-R151 8.2 No Navarre Beach Restoration Project Santa Rosa R192-R213.5 4.1 No Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 17 of 32 Region, Subregion and Project County Location Managed Miles Federal Authorization Eglin Air Force Base Okaloosa 5.1 Yes Western Destin Okaloosa 1.2 No Destin-Western Walton Beach Restoration Project Okaloosa R39-R50 2.1 No Pleistocene Mainland Subregion Destin-Western Walton Beach Restoration Project Walton R1-R23 5.0 No St. Andrews Reach Subregion Carillon Beach and Pinnacle Port Beach Restoration Project Bay R1-R5 1.5 Yes Panama City Beach Shore Protection Project Bay R5-R91.5 16.3 Yes St. Andrews Inlet Management Plan Implementation Bay R91.5-R97 0.9 Yes St. Joseph Peninsula Beach Restoration Gulf R67-R105.5 7.5 No Big Bend Gulf Coast Region Sun Coast Subregion Fort Island Gulf Park Beach Restoration Project Citrus N/A 0.2 No Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 18 of 32 Region, Subregion and Project County Location Managed Miles Federal Authorization Southwest Gulf Coast Region Pinellas Barriers Subregion Honeymoon Island State Park Beach Restoration Project Pinellas R8-R10.5 0.5 No Pinellas County Beach Erosion Control Project-Sand Key Pinellas R56-R66 1.8 Yes Pinellas County Beach Erosion Control Project-Sand Key Pinellas R71-R107 6.8 Yes Pinellas County Beach Erosion Control Project-Treasure Island Pinellas R126-R143 3.5 Yes Pinellas County Beach Erosion Control Project-Long Key, Upham Beach Pinellas R144-R148 0.7 Yes Pinellas County Beach Erosion Control Project-Long Key, Pass-a-Grille Pinellas R160-R166 0.9 Yes Sarasota Barriers North Reach Subregion Manatee County Shore Protection Project, Anna Maria Island Manatee R12-R36 4.6 Yes Anna Maria Beach Nourishment and Coquina Beach Restoration Project Manatee R7-R10 and R36-R41 1.5 No Sarasota County Shore Protection Project, Longboat Key Manatee R44-R67 4.4 No Sarasota County Shore Protection Project, Longboat Key Sarasota R1-R29 5.4 No Lido Key Shore Protection Project Sarasota R35-R43.2 1.8 Yes Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 19 of 32 Region, Subregion and Project County Location Managed Miles Federal Authorization Sarasota Barriers South Reach Subregion South Siesta Key Beach Restoration Project Sarasota R67-R77 2.1 No Sarasota County Shore Protection Project, Venice Sarasota R116-R133 3.3 Yes Manasota Barriers Subregion Charlotte County Beach Restoration Project Charlotte R28-R39 1.8 No Charlotte Harbor Complex Subregion Lee County Shore Protection Project, Gasparilla Island Lee R10-R26 3.2 Yes Lee County Shore Protection Project, Captiva Island Lee R84-R109 5.0 Yes Sanibel Island Beach Restoration Project Lee R109-R118 1.5 No Sanibel Island Beach Restoration Project, Gulf Pines Subdivision (private) Lee R129-R133 0.6 No Estero Barriers Subregion Lee County Shore Protection Project, Estero Island Lee R174.6- R181.5 1.2 Yes Lovers Key State Park Beach Restoration Lee R215-R220 1.2 No Big Hickory Island Lee R222.3- R225.5 0.8 No Bonita Beach Restoration Project Lee R226-R230.4 0.9 No Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 20 of 32 Region, Subregion and Project County Location Managed Miles Federal Authorization Naples Coast Collier County Beach Restoration Project, Vanderbilt Beach Collier R22.3-R30.5 1.6 No Collier County Beach Restoration Project, Park Shore Collier R50.65-R57.5 1.0 No Collier County Beach Restoration Project, City of Naples Collier R57.8-R79 3.1 No City of Naples Erosion Control Structures Collier R88-89 0.2 No Southern Barriers Central Marco Island Beach Restoration Project Collier R134.5-R139 0.8 No South Marco Island Beach Restoration Project Collier R143-148 0.9 No Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 21 of 32 SAND SOURCES The Regional Offshore Sand Source Inventory (ROSSI) project was created to store data collected from assessment of marine sand sources for beach nourishment activities and as a centralized location for users to access the information. The second component of the project, is an Oracle enterprise database management system used to store the tabular data. The spatial and tabular data are accessed by coastal engineers, managers, and researches via the online web portal. The tool consists of a database that can be searched and manipulated through an online query builder as well as with existing ArcIMS Geographic Information System (GIS) routines that provide access over the Internet. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) through the Minerals Management Program (MMP) is responsible for the use of offshore sand resources located outside of state waters and within federal waters on the Outer Continental Shelf. The MMP has initiated regional management of sand sources, where feasible, to manage the growing need for these sand sources. Projects in Brevard County, Collier County, Dade County, Duval County, Manatee County and Sarasota County have obtained sand through the MMP leasing program. The FDEP is currently working with BOEM to coordinate a regional agreement in southeast Florida for the use of sand sources that would provide shore protection in the following counties (St. Lucie, Martin, Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties). FDEP and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completed the southeast regional Sediment Assessment and Needs Determination (SAND) study in a collaborative manner and the study was reviewed by and vetted through all the participating stakeholders. The SAND study determined that the regional offshore supply of sand in state and federal waters is more than adequate to meet the needs of all the beach nourishment projects in the five southeastern coastal counties, St. Lucie, Martin, Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade, for the next 50 years (year 2062). (Ousley et al., 2014). FDEP has outlined various regional sediment management (RSM) strategies in its inlet management plans and the SBMP. The USACE, Jacksonville District RSM work aids the FDEP in updating these plans. It is the goal of FDEP to coordinate with the USACE and implement strategies mutually beneficial to USACE and FDEP missions by leveraging federal authorities, permits, and funding. OFFSHORE DREDGING VS. TRUCK HAULS The volumetric differences between the two types of mechanical equipment used to transport sand sources to beach and dune nourishment projects are described in Table 7. Truck hauls, as shown in Figure 5, account for approximately 4% of the total beach nourishment activities from the listed projects Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 22 of 32 below in Table 7. Offshore dredging projects, as shown in Figure 6, account for approximately 96% of total beach nourishment activities for the listed projects below in Table 7. The volumetric differences per year of truck haul activities vs. offshore dredging activities are illustrated below in Figure 7. Figure 5. Wabasso Beach Project (Sector 3) truck haul construction in Indian River County, 2010. Figure 6. South Boca Raton Beach Nourishment Project by dredge, 2013. Photo courtesy of ATM. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 23 of 32 Figure 7. Graph showing the amount of offshore dredged sand volumes when compared to truck hauled sand volumes. Please note: red boxes highlighting years 2004, 2005, and 2012 indicate increased storm activity. Years predating 1994, show only the years with truck haul activities for comparisons purposes. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 24 of 32 Footnotes for Graph: 1.) The data depicted on the bar graph in figure 7 represents all the data available to FDEP for truck haul and dredged sand placement activities for the years indicated. The bar graph is intended to be as accurate as possible. 2.) The data is comparing upland truck hauls with dredging activities including inlet channel dredging, inlet bypass dredging and offshore dredging. Note, not all of the inlet or Intracoastal Waterway dredging activities and data shown in the graph above and summary below is described in the SBMP. 3.) The dredge volumes represent volume of material placed on the dry beach only. Nearshore placement was excluded. 4.) Data from year 2014 represents the entire year of 2014 for the data submitted to the Department by June of 2015. 5.) The data for the years prior to 1994 represented on the bar graph only includes the years that had truck haul data. Several years between 1960 through 1993 are not depicted because they only had dredged sand placement on the beach and no truck hauled sand placement. 6.) After Hurricane Opal (1995), there was significant dune repair work that occurred in the Panhandle. The dune recovery work in 1996 was done intermediately in Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa and Walton Counties with material coming from beach scraping, overwash or upland material. The exact volume of material coming from upland sources isn’t known and appears upland sources were mostly used in Santa Rosa County, (See Taylor Engineering Report “Shoreline Conditions Assessment – Post Storm Management Recommendations – Hurricane Opal Dune & Recovery Plan” dated, 10-1999). 7.) Increased storm activity related to the following significant storms: 2004 – Hurricane Charley, Hurricane Frances, Hurricane Jeanne, and Hurricane Ivan. 2005 – Hurricane Dennis, Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Ophelia and Hurricane Wilma. 2012 – Tropical Storm Debbie and Hurricane Sandy. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 25 of 32 Table 7. Summary of offshore dredged sand volumes and truck haul volumes by project location. Year Volume (CY) Truck Haul Project Location (Local Sponsor) Volume (CY) Offshore Dredging Project Location (County) 1960 30,000 Smathers Beach, City of Key West 266,000 Dade 1989 246,000 Honeymoon Island (230,000) Pinellas County & Key West (16,000) City of Key West 3,114,800 Broward, Lee &Volusia 1994 130,000 Cape Canaveral Beach – Canaveral Port Authority & Miami Bch. (30,000) Dade County 2,600,000 Nassau County 1995 3,299 Rest Beach (2,600 pre Hurricane Opal and 699 post H. Opal) City of Key West 4,748,920 Brevard, Charlotte, Duval, Lee, Manatee, Nassau, Palm Beach & St. Lucie 1996 59,188 Naples & Park Shore (19,188) Collier County & Cocoa Beach (40,000) Brevard County 7,274,220 Collier, Lee, Manatee, Martin, Nassau, Pinellas & Sarasota 1997 349,427 Naples & Park Shore (19,187) Collier County, Sebastian Inlet (236,240) Indian River County, Sunny Isles (9,000) Dade County & Miami Bch. (85,000) Dade County 2,042,569 Collier, Dade, Manatee, Martin, Nassau & Sarasota 1998 286,376 Naples & Park Shore (19,188) Collier County, Rest Beach (1,188) City of Key West, Patrick AFB (163,000) AFB & Miami Beach (18,000) Dade County 4,344,280 Brevard, Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Dade, Martin, Nassau, Palm Beach, Sarasota & St. Lucie 1999 97,865 Naples & Park Shore (19,187) Collier County, Bathtub Beach (28,000) Martin County, Sebastian Inlet (50,032) Indian River County and Rest Bch. (646) City of Key West 14,838,504 Collier, Dade, Indian River, Martin & Okaloosa 2000 92,865 Naples & Park Shore (19,188) Collier County, Sebastian Inlet (50,077) Indian River County, Key West (23,600) City of Key West 1,193,450 Collier, Martin, Palm Beach & Pinellas 2001 173,398 Singer Island (Palm Beach County – 10k), Naples & Park Shore (19,187) Collier County, Sebastian Inlet (114,611) Indian River County, Key West (4,600) City of Key West & Segment III (25,000) Broward County 6,441,908 Brevard, Collier, Martin, Nassau, Palm Beach & Sarasota 2002 194,223 Naples & Park Shore (19,188) Collier County, Sebastian Inlet (50,035) Indian River County & 32nd St., Miami Bch. (125,000) Dade County 8,720,209 Collier, Dade, Manatee, Martin, Nassau, Okaloosa & Palm Beach Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 26 of 32 Year Volume (CY) Truck Haul Project Location (Local Sponsor) Volume (CY) Offshore Dredging Project Location (County) 2003 19,187 Naples & Park Shore (19,187) Collier County 10,677,921 Collier , Dade, Duval, Escambia, Palm Beach, Martin, Nassau, Okaloosa, St. Johns & St. Lucie 2004 13,000 Singer Island (Palm Beach County) 2,893,373 Lee, Martin, Nassau, Palm Beach, Pinellas & St. Lucie 2005 650,500 Mid Reach; 307,300 and South Beaches; 252,200 (Brevard County), Singer Island (Palm Beach County 56,000) Miami Bch. (35,000) Dade County 11,725,158 Bay, Brevard, Collier, Duval, Escambia, Martin, Nassau, Okaloosa, Palm Beach, Sarasota, St. Johns & St. Lucie 2006 496,938 Mid Reach (127,584) and South Beaches (47,770) Brevard County, Panama City Beach (17k) Bay County, Singer Island (30,000) Palm Beach County, Miami Bch. (110,000) Dade County & South St. Lucie Dune Project (160,000) St. Lucie County, West Coco Plum Bch. (4,100) City of Marathon & Rest Beach (484) City of Key West 19,774,347 Bay, Broward, Charlotte, Collier, Escambia, Manatee, Martin, Nassau, Okaloosa, Palm Beach, Pinellas, Volusia, Santa Rosa, Sarasota & Walton 2007 99,293 Singer Island (Palm Beach County) 7,017,780 Brevard, Dade, Indian River, Lee, Martin, Nassau, Okaloosa, Palm Beach, Sarasota & St. Lucie 2008 194,272 Mid Reach (95,777) and South Beaches (30,948) Brevard County, Singer Island (50,697) Palm Beach County, Key Biscayne (2,400) Dade County, Little Crawl Key (14,450) City of Marathon 2,569,875 Nassau, Martin, Okaloosa, Palm Beach & Pinellas, 2009 248,459 Mid Reach; 91,822 and South Beaches; 69,132 (Brevard County), Miami (48,000) Dade County & Rest Beach (505) City of Key West 5,029,868 Bay, Dade, Gulf, Lee, Martin, Nassau, Palm Beach, Sarasota & St. Lucie 2010 436,581 Navarre Beach (11,881) Santa Rosa County, Sector 3 (300k) Indian River County, Bathtub Bch. (72,700) Martin County 7,396,965 Brevard, Collier, Dade, Martin, Okaloosa, Palm Beach & Pinellas Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 27 of 32 Year Volume (CY) Truck Haul Project Location (Local Sponsor) Volume (CY) Offshore Dredging Project Location (County) 2011 470,386 Mid-Town (52k) and Phipps Ocean Park (56k) Town of Palm Beach, Singer Island (30,313) Palm Beach County, Sector 3 (174,673) Indian River County, Bathtub Bch. (8,800) Martin County, Doctor’s Pass (22,000) Collier County, Ft Pierce Bch. (62,000) St. Lucie County, Smathers Beach (12,800) City of Key West, Little Crawl Key (600) City of Marathon, Rest Beach (200) City of Key West & Patrick AFB (51,000) AFB 5,917,588 Bay, Broward, Charlotte, Duval, Lee, Manatee, Nassau & Palm Beach 2012 317,495 Sector 3 (90k) Indian River County, Hallandale Beach (80,000) City of Hallandale, Key Biscayne (37,500) Village of Key Biscayne & Fort Island (5,250) Citrus County, Jupiter-Carlin (41,145) Palm Beach County, Martin County Truck Haul (38,400), Smathers Bch. (5,000) City of Key West & Rest Beach (200) City of Key West & Segment II (20,000) Broward County 6,888,593 Dade, Indian River, Lee, Manatee, Martin, Nassau, Palm Beach, Pinellas, St. Johns & St. Lucie 2013 94,134 Smathers Beach, Key West (4,740) City of Key West, Sailfish Point (8,400) Martin County, Sebastian Inlet (18,000) Indian River County. Miami Bch. (6,296) Dade County & Coco Plum Beach (1117) City of Marathon 7,451,613 Collier, Okaloosa, Martin, Nassau, Palm Beach & St. Lucie 2014 736,457 Collier County Beach Nourishment (234,497) Collier County, Segment II (130k) Broward County, Miami Bch. (31,365) Dade County, Sombrero Beach (1000) City of Marathon, Patrick AFB (17,000) AFB, Kennedy Space Center (85,000) NASA, Mid Reach (191,770) Brevard County, South Beaches (47,262) Brevard County, Coral Cove (25,926) Palm Beach County & (12,800) Dade County 7,948,295 Brevard, Dade, Lee, Manatee, Nassau, Palm Beach, Pinellas and St. Lucie Total Volume (CY) 5,549,343 150,676,236 Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 28 of 32 INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FDEP is directed to periodically review innovative technologies for beach erosion control and, on a limited basis, authorize, through the permitting process, experimental projects that are alternatives to traditional projects to determine the most effective and less costly techniques. FDEP is authorized to co-sponsor demonstration projects of new or innovative technologies which have the potential to reduce project costs, conserve beach quality sand, extend the life of beach nourishment projects, and improve inlet sand bypassing. FDEP in ranking annual funding priorities of the beach erosion control program, considers the use of innovative, cost-effective, and environmentally sensitive applications to reduce erosion. An innovative technology workshop was conducted by the FDEP in February of 2006. FDEP explained the applicable rules and statutes and presented the procedures for obtaining regulatory approval to those who presented their technologies. During 2006 and 2007, FDEP formed an independent committee of coastal engineers and scientists to review and select innovative projects to be funded through a specific legislative appropriation in FY2006-2007. Based upon an evaluation of proposals. Funds were to be used for the design, permitting, construction, and monitoring of demonstration projects. Projects selected for funding were determined by the committee to have the potential to be economically viable when compared to conventional technology and expected to optimize the management of sediment, or some other erosion control system, and project performance. Projects for examining the use of new approaches for beach management techniques are listed in Table 8. Table 8. Innovative technology projects Project Name Location Date Status Artificial Seaweed Collier County, Manatee County, and Palm Beach County Early 1980’s Ineffective and non-functional. Beach Builder Screws Flagler County 1985 Ineffective in moving sand and discontinued. Beach Dewatering Flagler County 1988 Results of the installation were inconclusive. Undercurrent Stabilizers Collier County 1984 No substantial beneficial effect on sediment accretion rates. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 29 of 32 Project Name Location Date Status Prefabricated Erosion Prevention Reef (PEP) I Town of Palm Beach 1987 Project had little, if any beneficial effect on the beach landward of the structure and was ordered removed. PEP II Town of Palm Beach 1991 Project determined to be causing erosion. Biodune St. Johns County and Brevard County 1986 and 1988 The Biodune synthetic gel composite did not affect coastal processes. Vegetation had difficulty establishing in the dune. Breaches in the dune toe rendered the product ineffective. Aragonite Nourishment Project Fisher Island, Dade County 1990 Overall shoreline location and beach planform have remained stable. Longard Tubes Sand Key, Pinellas County 1992 Project performed well to stabilize the beach as temporary groins until construction of large-scale beach restoration project. PEP Reef Indian River County 1996 Results of the installation inconclusive. Net groin study Naples, Collier 2000 Results of the installation inconclusive. Net groin study Okaloosa County (Eglin Air Force Base) 2001 A third party peer review of the results of this test project indicated that this system did not meet the performance expectations and was not cost effective. Porous groin study Inlet Beach, Walton 2004 Results of the installation inconclusive. Submerged geotube Stump Pass, Charlotte 2005 Resulted in shoreline retreat and was ordered removed. Recycled glass sand demonstration project Broward County 2006 Test plots were installed on the upper beach in the summer. The next phase of testing in the surf zone was indefinitely postponed by County Pressurized Equalizing Modules (PEMS) Town of Hillsboro Beach, Broward County 2008 PEMS installed in March of 2008 and removed in 2011 as a NTP item for Hillsboro/Deerfield Nourishment. A third party peer review of the results of this test project indicated that this system did not meet the performance expectations. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 30 of 32 Project Name Location Date Status Multi-Purpose Artificial Surfing Reef Brevard County 2008 Feasibility Study to assess construction of a multipurpose artificial surfing reefs (ASRs), which may be compatible with Brevard’s shore protection project program. The document summarizes the ASR feasibility to assess potential locations for various types of multi-purpose artificial surfing reef. The project has not been constructed and was not considered to be economically justified by the County. SUMMARY The SBMP document is written with the intent of being a comprehensive plan that illustrates the strategies the State of Florida uses to manage the coastline in critically eroded beach segments. The plan also describes the historical and present beach restoration activities taken to restore and manage Florida’s beaches for its citizens, tourist and future generations to enjoy. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 31 of 32 REFERENCES Aaron L. Shalowitz, 1964. Shore and Sea Boundaries, Vol. 2, 749 p. Catanese Center for Urban and Environmental Solutions, Florida Atlantic University, 2003. Economics of Florida’s Beaches: The Impact of Beach Restoration. Catanese Center for Urban and Environmental Solutions, Florida Atlantic University, 2005. Economics of Beach Tourism in Florida. Catanese Center for Urban and Environmental Solutions, Florida Atlantic University, 2006. The Protection of Property Values by Nourished Beaches: The 2004 Hurricane Season. Clark, R.R., 1993. Beach Conditions in Florida: a Statewide Inventory and Identification of the Beach Erosion Problem Areas in Florida, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Beaches and Shores, Beaches and Shores Technical and Design Memorandum 89-1, 5th Edition. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 2004 Hurricane Recovery Plan for Florida’s Beach and Dune System. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2015. Critically Eroded Beaches in Florida, Division of Water Resource Management, 80 p. Houston, J.R. 2013. “The Economic Value of Beaches – 2013 Update,” Shore & Beach, 81(1), 3-11. Leadon, M.E., Foster, E., Nguyen, N., Cook, G., Brantly, R., Clark, R., As-Salek, J., LaGrone, J., Koch, J., Sanders, P., Fokes, B., Roberts, S., 2004. Hurricane Ivan: Beach and Dune Erosion and Structural Damage Assessment and Post-storm Recovery Plan for the Panhandle Coast of Florida, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems, 64 p. Leadon, M.E., Clark, R.R., and Nguyen, N.T., 1999. Hurricane Earl and Hurricane Georges, Beach and Dune Erosion and Structural Damage Assessment and Post-Storm Recovery Plan for the Panhandle Coast of Florida, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems Report No. BCS-99-01, 43 p. Leadon, M.E., Nguyen, N.T., and Clark, R.R., 1998. Hurricane Opal: Beach and Dune Erosion and Structural Damage Along the Panhandle Coast of Florida, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems Report No. BCS-98-01, 102 p. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Strategic Beach Management Plan – Introduction June 2015, Page 32 of 32 Michel, J., 2004. Regional management strategies for federal offshore borrow areas, U.S. east and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Journal of Coastal Research, 20(1), 149–154. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Office of Economic and Demographic Research, 2015. Economic Evaluation of Florida’s Investment in Beaches, 23 p. Ousley, J.D., Kromhout, E., Schrader, M.H., Lillycrop, L., 2014. Southeast Florida sediment assessment and needs determination (SAND) study, Final Report, ERDC/CHL TR-14-10, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 322 p. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, 1975. The Coastline of the United States, NOAA/PA 71046, 6 p.
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